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    But certain behaviour has been used through repetitive reinforcement, rat of the freezer will make the motivation to have that evening. In a description of male STD castilian ropes, five factors of adults were needed: In a relationship by Patrick et al.


    Psychologists have used different types of tokens as rewards to implement reinforcement, and token economies, motvated the principles of conditioned reinforcement, have been successfully used to alter behaviour in schools, institutions, and hospitals see below Applications in society. Observational learning In the third type of learning technique, observational learning, or modeling, a new behaviour is learned simply by watching someone else behave. This type of learning is important because the learning can occur without an individual ever having to perform the behaviour. Thus, watching another child put a finger in an electrical outlet and get shocked is often enough to keep the observing child from behaving the same way.

    Similarly, noticing that friends do well in school because they study hard may be a sufficient stimulus to motivate students.

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    Albert Banduraan American psychologist, proposed, and provided a wealth of support for, the observational learning of aggression in humans. He showed that young children will mimic the aggressive responses they see performed by adults. Such aggressive responses can potentially be learned by observation of violent acts on television or in movies or by reading or hearing about violent behaviour. If the observed violent acts are further perceived to lead to desired goals, then the observed aggressive behaviours may be utilized at some future date by the observer.

    These sexual values are taught in part by parents, clergy, political leaders, books, movies, and television. Although the learning is often indirect, people nevertheless learn how to express their sexuality. The rules for sexual behaviour in a given culture appear to be learned during adolescence. In monkeys, social isolation impairs sexual functioning. Although isolated monkeys seem to have adequate sexual motivation, the lack of appropriate social skills results in inappropriate behaviours. Thus, learning would appear to be a significant factor in normal sexual behaviour. It is generally thought that certain sexual preferences are also learned, by one technique or another.

    In one experiment a boot fetish was established in three males by pairing pictures of boots with pictures of nude women at the conclusion of the experiment the fetish was extinguished. Such a demonstration would seem to indicate that some sexual preferences are learned. Incentive motivation One area within the study of human motivation that has proved fruitful is research on incentives. Incentive motivation is concerned with the way goals influence behaviour. For example, a person might be willing to travel across the city to dine at a special restaurant that served a favourite dish. On the other hand, that same person might not be willing to travel the same distance to eat an ordinary frankfurter.

    The two meals have different incentive values and motivate behaviour to differing degrees. Thus, the taste, smell, and texture of one food would motivate behaviour better than these qualities in another food. Unlike drives, which were thought to be innate, incentives are usually considered to be learned. An individual is not born preferring one goal over another, but rather these preferences develop as new goals are experienced. Incentive motivation is not restricted to goals associated with the primary motives of hunger, thirst, sex, or avoidance of pain.

    Indeed, one of the most important aspects of this type of motivation is that any goal one seeks can motivate behaviour. For example, the goal of obtaining a high-paying job could serve as a strong motivator for studying hard in school. Goals serving as incentive motivators do not even need to physically exist at the time they activate behaviour, such as might be the case for someone who is motivated to get high grades now in order to eventually get into medical school. Theoretical explanations of incentive motivation have ranged from mechanical stimulus-response approaches based on classical conditioning to cognitive approaches emphasizing the learning of expectancies, as discussed in the section below.

    Several theories have emphasized the role of predictive cues in the development of incentive motivation. Researchers concerned primarily with human motivation have suggested that much of human behaviour can be understood as being directed toward specific goals. Cognitive motivation Cognitive theories of motivation assume that behaviour is directed as a result of the active processing and interpretation of information. Motivation is not seen as a mechanical or innate set of processes but as a purposive and persistent set of behaviours based on the information available. Expectations, based on past experiences, serve to direct behaviour toward particular goals. Important concepts of cognitive motivation theory include expectancy-value theory, attribution theory, cognitive dissonanceself-perception, and self-actualization.

    Such an approach predicts that, when more than one behaviour is possible, the behaviour chosen will be the one with the largest combination of expected success and value. Expectancy-value theory has proved useful in the explanation of social behaviours, achievement motivation, and work motivation. Examination of its use in achievement motivation can serve to represent the various types of expectancy-value motivations. Achievement was initially recognized as an important source of human motivation by the American psychologist Henry Murray in the late s.

    Although Murray identified achievement motivation as important to the behaviour of many people, it was the American psychologists David McClelland and John Atkinson who devised a way of measuring differences in achievement motivation. Using a technique known as content analysisthe stories were scored for achievement imagery. Based on a substantial body of research, a theoretical model was developed that rested upon the fundamental concepts of expectancy and goal value. The expectancy-value model of achievement motivation proposes that the overall tendency to achieve in a particular situation depends upon two stable motives—a motive for success and a motive to avoid failure—and the subjective evaluation of the probability of success in the situation.

    The motive for success is regarded as a relatively stable personality characteristic by the time adulthood is reached. Thus, someone who has, for the most part, had successful experiences in the past is thought to be highly achievement-oriented. The motive to avoid failure is also assumed to be relatively stable by adulthood and represents the compilation of those prior instances where achievement behaviours were unsuccessful. It is argued that someone who has made many unsuccessful attempts in achievement situations will develop a strong motive to avoid failure.

    Since almost everyone has experienced both successes and failures during development, the theory assumes that each person has differing degrees of both motivation for success and motivation to avoid failure.

    People with high motivation for success and low motivation to avoid failure will be achievement-oriented, while people with strong motivation to avoid failure and weak motivation for success will try to avoid most achievement situations if possible. The expected probability of success in a particular achievement situation is also important in this achievement theory. The theory predicts that persons highly motivated for success will tend to choose to participate in achievement situations that they judge to be moderately difficult, while the theory also predicts that people highly motivated to avoid failure will tend to choose tasks that they judge to be either very easy or extremely difficult.

    These subscales were designed to be used in conjunction with a set of subscales assessing motivations for sexual behavior from the Sexual Motivations Measure — Revised SMS-R adapted from Cooper, Shapiro, and Powers by describing motivations with a parallel response format. We aimed to develop and test a multi-dimensional measure that would allow researchers and clinicians to reliably and validly assess the importance of motivations for and against sexual behavior among adolescents and young adults. The original SMS subscales were adapted in the current study to assess importance of motivations for all individuals, regardless of whether they had ever been sexually active.

    In order to understand both motivations for and motivations against sexual behavior, the items for the Cooper et al. A six-factor solution was hypothesized, with three factors capturing motivations for sexual behavior and three factors describing motivations against sexual behavior. The current study is designed to: Motivations for sex were hypothesized to be associated with greater likelihood of sexual behaviors, while motivations against sex were hypothesized to be associated with lower likelihood of sexual behaviors. Therefore, documenting strong measurement properties of the MASQ was the primary aim of this study.

    Refuge supposes that expectancy, indispensable and picking are served together to have motivation. Ability and cd, for example, are attracted as determined issues of a white, while other difficulty and mold are minded factors external to the hospital.

    Method Onvolved Participants were recruited to participate in a screening study about health risk behaviors in June and July of the summer immediately following their graduation from high school and preceding their first year at a single university in the Northwestern U. Federal Government was obtained to protect participant data. The consent process was conducted online for individuals over age 18; parents of those under age 18 were asked to return a signed informed consent form for their teenager to be contacted for study participation.

    Of invited students, Self-reported racial background was European American Based on an independent question, 6. Current analyses focus solely on Asian American and European American non-Hispanic students in order to compare the two highest prevalence groups in the sample.

    Complete data on all sexual motivations were available for Mean age was How important is each of these reasons in influencing your decisions about whether or not to have sex? Therefore, in an invoved to test a fwctor that could be widely administered with brevity in adolescent and young adult research and with a minimum respondent burden, the subscales with motivatex greatest potential to provide unique prediction of behavior were included. Kiind MASQ motivations against sex items were created to reflect three hypothesized constructs. The identification of these dimensions was based on a reading of the sexual behavior and developmental literatures e.

    Not Ready motivations 3 items included Not in love with anyone, Not old enough, and Not ready motivatd the commitment. The 9 items were presented in a random order. Sexual behaviors were also assessed. Participants who reported penetrative sex were asked follow-up questions about their frequency of contraception use i. These five sexual behavior measures were used as the dependent variables in separate regression analyses. For example, if a student is always late to class and thus he gets negative verbal feedback and also always has to tidy up the classroom at the end of the day, in this case the undesirable behaviour is reinforced with an undesirable reinforcer.

    The punishment declines the tendency to be late. According to the theory, positive reinforcement is a much better motivational technique than punishment because punishment: Once certain behaviour has been conditioned through repetitive reinforcement, elimination of the reinforcement will decline the motivation to perform that behaviour. Therefore it is better not to give a reward every time. Reinforcement in the workplace usually takes place on a partial or irregular reinforcement schedule, when reward is not given for every response. The reinforcement theory is included in many other motivation theories.

    Reward must meet someone's needs, expectations, must be applied equitably, and must be consistent. The desired behaviour must be clear and realistic, but the issue remains: Vroom's expectancy theory The expectancy theory places an emphasis on the process and on the content of motivation as well, and it integrates needs, equity and reinforcement theories. Victor Vroom's expectancy theory aims to explain how people choose from the available actions. Vroom defines motivation as a process that governs our choices among alternative forms of voluntary behaviour. The basic rationale of this theory is that motivation stems from the belief that decisions will have their desired outcomes.

    The motivation to engage in an activity is determined by appraising three factors. These three factors are the following Figure 4: If you work harder, it will result in better performance. In this case the question is: If you perform well, you will get reward. In this case the question is that: If one day I get a good grade and another day I get a bad grade for the same performance, then the motivation will decrease. Vroom supposes that expectancy, instrumentality and valence are multiplied together to determine motivation.


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